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Brexit

Deal
The UK and the European Union have approved an agreement on a trade deal after Brexit. The last-minute deal allows Britain to continue trading with the EU and may avoid the massive disruption to the economy and people’s lives expected if there had been no deal. Exactly how the deal affects business, the economy and individuals will only become clearer with time with constantly updated reporting available here:

Associated Press (AP) - https://apnews.com/hub/brexit

Financial Times(FT) - https://www.ft.com/brexit

The Guardian -https://www.theguardian.com/politics/eu-referendum

BBC - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/politics/uk_leaves_the_eu

 

Details of the deal are here and for some early analysis please see:

FT - https://www.ft.com/content/34dd4cbe-33ef-32f8-9aa2-904339e46bf0

AP - https://apnews.com/article/brexit-europe-global-trade-europe-e0e9914361f0f8975b7f49a834497c5d

Council on Foreign Relations (U.S. based) - https://www.cfr.org/in-brief/whats-eu-uk-brexit-deal

 

For questions about the deal itself and its impact please see:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/55252388

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/explainers-55261711

UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson unsurprisingly heralded the Christmas Eve deal as delivering on Brexit by taking back control of UK laws and destiny. He said the deal will protect jobs, allow UK goods to be sold without tariffs and quotas in the EU market, and allow companies to do even more business with Europe. From January 1, the UK will be outside the European customs union and single market, Johnson said, and British laws will be made solely by the British parliament, interpreted by UK judges sitting in UK courts, and no longer subject to the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice – all demands of ardent Brexiteers. European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said the deal was fair and balanced and Brussels would "continue cooperating with the UK in all areas of mutual interest" such as climate change, transport and security. She said agreement on the highly contentious but symbolic issue of fishing rights guaranteed 5½ years of "full predictability for our fishing communities".

Brexit – January 2020

The United Kingdom officially left the European Union at midnight Central European Time on January 31, 2020. For a range of news coverage and what it meant please see these links:

https://apnews.com/e48bf51838ced94e2d92adba189b4944

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-51333314

https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/10858199/brexit-news-uk-live-eu-latest/

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/live/2020/feb/01/brexit-britain-wakes-up-to-uncertain-future-after-uk-leaves-eu-live-news-and-updates

https://inews.co.uk/news/politics/brexit/what-happens-after-brexit-day-uk-transition-period-when-leaving-eu-date-explained-1373410

https://edition.cnn.com/europe/live-news/brexit-day-uk-leaves-eu-gbr-intl/index.html

https://www.foxnews.com/category/world/world-regions/europe/brexit

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/brexit-uk-officially-leaves-european-union-200131211418625.html

https://www.gov.uk/transition

https://www.gov.uk/staying-uk-eu-citizen

The course of Brexit was set when UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson won his bet on the future of Britain in a snap election on December 12 2019. Voters woke up on Friday the 13th December 2019 to a thumping Conservative majority, the resignations of both main opposition party leaders – Labour’s Jeremy Corbyn and the Liberal Democrats’ Jo Swinson, and a resurgent Scottish National Party seeking the independence of Scotland. Please also see here for:
Election result numbers

And here for how Johnson’s Conservatives won:
https://www.ft.com/content/ab3692b0-2317-11ea-92da-f0c92e957a96

https://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/uk/how-boris-johnson-became-britain-s-most-powerful-prime-minister-since-tony-blair-1.4120281

See here for more Brexit news

 

Coronavirus

The Present

Prime Minister Boris Johnson has again announced tighter rules aimed at halting the spread of Covid-19 in England. His nation-wide television announcement came after mounting concern about continuing rapid spread of the coronavirus and weeks of criticism about delays and questionable handling of pupils’ return to school in the new year. The measures on January 4 – along with similar rules in Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales, the other nations of the UK - were the latest in a sequence of increasingly tighter restrictions through December including adding London and much of the southeast to the highest Tier 4 level just before Christmas and much of the rest of England right afterwards. They came along with a burgeoning ray of hope across the world for the success of the first anti-Covid vaccines – vaccines that the UK had successfully pre-ordered and allowed it to be the first in the world to start vaccinating people. Despite that success, the Johnson government’s later decision to extend the time between two required inoculations without proper testing raised serious questions from two major drug regulators – the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (FDA) - as well as the first vaccine developer (Pfizer/BioNTech). The lockdown measures signalled the end of the Johnson government’s attempts to loosen restrictions through the holidays and came less than a week before Christmas. That U-turn came after growing pressure for action from medical experts - in a rare joint editorial in the British Medical Journal and the Health Service Journal on December 15 and warnings of problems from its own scientific advisors a month earlier, warnings echoed by the Opposition Labour Party. The Prime Minister claimed he made the decision because new scientific data showed a new strain of the virus was spreading much faster than the previous one. England left its second national lockdown and went back to a three-tiered approach at the beginning of December amid familiar debate about the balance between people’s health and their income. Amid hopes for rapid approval and distribution of a new vaccine against coronavirus, the government was hoping tough restrictions on most of England for the first three weeks of December would allow some limited loosening over the Christmas period between December 23 and 27. But putting most of the country into tier 2, the middle level, created multiple anomalies and was criticised as too simplistic and broad – so much that Johnson had to mount a campaign to persuade a significant minority of his own MPs to approve it in Parliament.
It was an echo of events only a month earlier when he announced his second national lockdown on the last day of October after weeks of criticism over delays, ineffective measures, questionable consultation, and unfairness. At the time he said he had no choice and needed to save lives and protect the effectiveness of England’s National Health System. But his action again showed some of the same signs of confused government messaging that beset Johnson’s previous measures. The Labour opposition party said it would back the measures which it and medical experts had called for, albeit weeks earlier. Mainly right-wing critics including some of Johnson’s own Conservative Members of Parliament questioned the need for any lockdown and business groups warned of further economic damage. Johnson’s attempt only a month earlier to balance the conflicting pressures of public health and the economy with temporary and differing regional lockdowns had run into much criticism. Mayors and other politicians in the Manchester and Liverpool areas of England’s northwest claimed unfair and unequal treatment by the central government. Perhaps most damaging was the Johnson government’s refusal to continue free school meals to the country’s neediest children in the half-term school holiday despite a widely supported campaign started by English football star Marcus Rashford.
Please see here for more on the UK government’s handling of the coronavirus crisis.

Not so hidden agendas
Amidst the confusion and controversy brought by the coronavirus, Boris Johnson’s office has kept pushing its key agendas such as revamping the civil service – replacing a series of key civil servants including the top one – and pursuing a hard Brexit, including the appointment of controversial former Australian prime minister Tony Abbott as a trade adviser.
And so far the government has faced little scrutiny of who’s making money from it – a question not unique to the UK – as well as questionable practice in awarding multi-million pound contracts. But there remain a daunting list of questions and decisions for the rest of the year and undoubtedly further debate about its past decisions and competence.
Please see here for more on reaction to the UK government’s management of the coronavirus crisis.


Covid and the Media
The coronavirus pandemic has marked a worrying new wave of serious threats and attacks on media freedom in Europe said the latest annual report of the Council of Europe Platform to Promote the Protection of Journalism and Safety of Journalists. In a report titled “Hands Off Press Freedom: Attacks on Media in Europe must not become a New Normal” the fourteen member press freedom organisations including the AEJ documented how several Council of Europe member states have detained journalists for critical reporting, vastly expanded surveillance, and passed new laws to punish “fake news” even as they decide themselves what is allowable and what is false without the oversight of appropriate independent bodies. The report – available in full here – said these threats risk a tipping point in the fight to preserve a free media in Europe and aggravate an already gloomy outlook. The AEJ has played an active part with other media freedom organisations to highlight such attempts as detailed in this report from William Horsley, AEJ media freedom representative and UK chairman.

And in a statement marking World Press Freedom Day on May 3, Council of Europe Secretary General Marija Pejčinović Burić urged governments to avoid misusing the COVID-19 situation to silence or hinder journalists.
 

Misuse of emergency measures
As many governments introduced sweeping laws to deal with the Covid-19 pandemic, the AEJ has joined other media freedom groups in two urgent calls to European leaders to protect media freedom. They have called for “determined actions” from the Council of Europe, the 47-nation treaty-based human rights organisation, to protect the free flow of information and journalists’ right to report amid fears of a potentially dangerous slide towards authoritarianism and police-state societies. In particular the open letter cites Hungary - where the prime minister has open-ended powers to rule by decree and journalists and others are subject to prison sentences for promoting alleged “false information” or impeding government orders – as well as Slovenia and the Czech Republic which have suspended usual press conferences open to questions from journalists.

“The present emergency situation represents a critical threat both to public health and to the civil and political rights of people across Europe,” said William Horsley, AEJ media freedom representative and AEJ UK chairman. “Now is the time for free and independent media and for all those who believe in basic democratic standards and open government, to combine forces and to uphold the free flow of information and the inalienable rights of everyone as guaranteed under the European Convention on Human Rights.” 
Please see the open letter here to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, and the current and next presidents of the Committee of Ministers, the organisation’s executive decision-making body.

It follows an urgent warning against misuse of emergency laws from the AEJ and partner organisations to the presidents of the European Commission, the European Council, and European Parliament. It emphasizes that the free flow of independent news is essential both to maintain accurate information to the public and to ensure public scrutiny and debate on emergency measures, and notes all such measures must be necessary, proportionate, temporary and strictly time-limited, and subject to regular scrutiny to ensure excessive powers do not undermine democratic balances, including the free press.

The urgent letter supports a joint statement from three global special rapporteurs on freedom of expression with the UN, OSCE and the OAS and is signed by:

AEJ
ARTICLE 19

European Centre for Press and Media Freedom (ECPMF)

European Federation of Journalists

Free Press Unlimited (FPU)

Index on Censorship

International Federation of Journalists

International Press Institute (IPI)

Reporters Without Borders (RSF)

 

The open letter is also available here on the International Press Institute website.

 

Coronavirus coverage

There is a global study showing a majority of the public around the world get their information about coronavirus from mainstream media – yet journalists are their least trusted source. Please see this report in the UK Press Gazette and here for more on coronavirus coverage in the UK.
The AEJ International site has interesting links to EU coverage of the coronavirus story on its home page.

 

How personal data could contribute to a cure

 

EU response to Covid 19 – every government for itself

 

Virus cartoons

 

Five decisions the EU should make

 


 

 

Lunchtime meetings

Covid-19 Impact
The AEJ’s regular scheduled lunchtime meetings have had to be paused and have been replaced by online meetings for the last few months.
Regent’s University – our regular host - has suspended many physical meetings at their campus including those with the AEJ.
Updates for online events and Regent’s University will be available by email and on this site.

AEJ UK meetings usually start at 12:30 and are open to journalists, academics and Europe specialists and guests. Pre-registration is necessary by email to cas.jenkins@gmail.com. A fee of £25 is charged to cover the cost of refreshments - £10 for under-25s and free admission may be extended to students on a discretionary basis.
Reports on meetings are usually available on this website and our Facebook page.

For a list of our recent lunchtime guests see Events.

 
AEJ UK meetings were kindly hosted at Europe House, the London home of the EU Commission and European Parliament, for many years. Please see their UK website for EU events and information.


Recent AEJ UK guests

City of London official confident of future after Brexit
Catherine McGuinness, chair of the influential policy and resources committee of the City of London Corporation, says the City will remain a great centre for global capital after Brexit – deal or no deal. She spoke at a meeting with AEJ UK members, London's Foreign Press Association and other specially invited journalists, on December 4 at a delicate moment in UK-EU relations, just days away from a final deadline in talks about a possible trade deal. While the City did want a UK-EU post Brexit deal, she said the financial sector was already taking steps to ensure and strengthen relations with the EU even as it accepted the nature of London's relationship would change. McGuiness is also deputy chair of City UK, the lobby group for UK-wide financial services. For more on the meeting please see this report by Peter Norman, AEJ meetings secretary and former economics editor of the Financial Times, and this audio record of the meeting.

Media freedom and the rule of law
Media freedom and the rule of law are inextricably linked and both are necessary to enable people to assert their rights and hold the powerful to account, says a leading UK human rights lawyer. Can Yeginsu, one of 15 leading international lawyers appointed last year to the High Level Panel of Legal Experts on Media Freedom in a much-publicised bid by the governments of the UK and Canada to counter what they termed a “global assault on media freedom”, spoke to a meeting of AEJ UK members and other international journalists on November 2. The panel was set up as part of an international campaign to turn back the worsening trend of attacks on press freedom worldwide and its core goal is to bring about a better level of compliance by state authorities with the framework of international legal protections for journalists that is recognised by most governments in theory but often disregarded in practice. For more on his presentation please see this report from AEJ UK chairman William Horsley and this audio recording of the meeting. And please see here for more information on the work of the High Level Legal Panel.

 

Governments failing on climate crisis…
says eminent UK climate scientist, Prof. Sir Robert Watson. Joining the AEJ UK via Zoom from Washington on September 3, Professor Watson talked frankly and passionately about the “crisis” of human-induced climate change - he said governments are not reacting; young people are rightly concerned; greenhouse gases are increasing despite the Paris Agreement; all the hottest years on record have been in this century. And this means the threats to human life include drier weather in arid areas threatening water and food security, more floods in wet regions and rising sea levels threatening coastal communities. Sir Robert was chair of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1997 – 2002), is emeritus professor at the Tyndall Centre for climate research at the University of East Anglia, and is currently leading a major international assessment of the links between Climate Change, Biodiversity Loss, Land Degradation and Food and Water Security, and how they will affect human well being. Please see this full report from AEJ member and former BBC editor and manager Rick Thompson – and this audio record of the meeting.
 

A view from Europe
The AEJ UK held its second virtual meeting of the coronavirus lockdown on July 3 with Danuta Huebner MEP, a member of Poland's centre-right Civic Platform and the European People's Party in the European Parliament, who served previously as an EU Commissioner and Polish Minister for Europe. Professor Huebner drew on her experiences of high-level involvement with Polish and European politics over the past two decades to answer a host of topical questions - the uncertain outlook for democracy and the rule of law in her native Poland, the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on Europe, likely EU-UK relations post-Brexit, and the EU's relationship with China at a time of unstable leadership in the US.

Please see this report from former FT correspondent Peter Norman on the wide-ranging discussion with 28 UK and Irish AEJ members who joined the call.


America in trouble
Veteran American journalist and columnist Llewellyn King was the online guest from Washington for the AEJ-UK’s first online Zoom meeting on June 4. The wave of angry protests and riots that erupted across America following the police killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis are a “bellow of rage” against the Trump administration, he said, and the U.S. “has never been on such a precipitous slope since the Civil War.” The honorary AEJ member and host and producer of the weekly PBS program “White House Chronicle” was joined by 20 AEJ online participants. For more on his analysis please read Peter Norman’s account of the AEJ’s “Letter from America with Llewellyn King” event and on King’s own website.

China and Asia
China will bounce back from the coronavirus disruption, probably without any major long-term geopolitical impact. But, says Asia and China scholar Jeff Kingston, the consequences for President Xi Jinping might be less clear. Kingston - writer, columnist and Director of Asian Studies at Temple University Tokyo – briefed an AEJ UK meeting on March 9 2020 on China’s relationships in Asia. Please see this report on the meeting from former FT correspondent Peter Norman and this audio recording.

UK cyber security

How is the UK dealing with threats to cyber security and defending against them? As Brexit looms and debate continues about potential cyber threats such as the involvement of China’s Huawei in 5G telecommunications and Russian or other state interference in democratic processes in the UK and elsewhere, Nicola Hudson, Director of Policy and Communications at the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), explained the role of her young agency. She told the AEJ on February 20 2020 the NCSC, formed only 3 years ago, functions in two very different worlds:
– as an operational division of GCHQ, the UK's signals intelligence agency
- and at a public level seeking ways of raising awareness of fast growing cyber threats and devising innovative ways of developing the population's cyber security skills for the future.
For more on her presentation please see this report from former FT correspondent Peter Norman and this audio recording.

London central to UK future relations with EU?
Rory Stewart, former Conservative MP, cabinet minister, and former contender for Conservative party leader, says London could have a "very, very central" part to play in Britain's future relations with the European Union. Stewart was an independent candidate for London mayor in elections scheduled for May 7 2020 but withdrew after they were postponed for a year. He told an AEJ UK meeting on January 29 that London’s connections and contributions are crucial to the success of the rest of the UK and it could act as a bridge between Britain and the EU over the next 10 to 15 years in areas such as artificial intelligence, robotics and nanotechnology while still learning from policies in other European cities. For more on his argument and following discussion please see this report from former FT correspondent Peter Norman and this audio recording of the meeting.

See here for more AEJ UK guest speakers


AEJ Media Freedom Project

The AEJ works to protect freedom of expression and independent journalism by bringing issues to the attention of governments and advising inter-governmental organisations on behalf of our members. The AEJ's Media Freedom Representative and Vice President is William Horsley, a former BBC foreign correspondent and the current chairman of the UK section.
Since the 
AEJ Media Freedom Survey in 2007 (Goodbye to Freedom?), the AEJ has published Europe-wide surveys and reports that reveal the erosion of press freedom through physical assaults, wrongful imprisonment, oppressive laws, and unacceptable political and commercial pressures.
The AEJ is an observer at the 
Council of Europe. Since 2 April 2015, it has been one of the eight partners in the Council's online platform for early warning of and rapid response to attacks on the media. For more information, see Media Freedom.
The AEJ actively supports the ongoing efforts of UNESCO, the UN Agency with a mandate to safeguard media freedom, to implement the UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity. The AEJ Media Freedom Representative authored the OSCE's Safety of Journalists Guidebook setting out the obligations of participating states to protect the security of journalists, including those using the Internet.
Our campaigns and activities can also be tracked on the
Media Freedom and News pages of the international AEJ website, www.aej.org


AEJ and the Council of Europe

The AEJ takes part in the policy work of the Council of Europe (CoE) on key issues of media freedom as a participant in the steering committee on Media and Information Society and the Platform to Promote the Protection of Journalism and the Safety of Journalists. It works on behalf of its members across Europe to hold the CoE and its 47 member states to their commitments on media freedom and freedom of expression.

To read further, please go to Media Freedom.


Media visits to the European Parliament

The EP's London Office has a small budget to offset some of the travel and hotel costs incurred by journalists when visiting the European Parliament. Only a limited number can be helped in this way, so you must first be invited by the UK Office before seeking reimbursement (see EP website).

 


Briefings

A selection of AEJ-related writings and activities

AEJ member Rick Thompson’s new book Park Life has just been published – a diary in praise of urban parks, detailing a year of the wildlife in his local park by the Avon and tangential thoughts about legends, folklore, science, climate change, and the health benefits of regular contact with nature. Park Life is available from many booksellers including The Book Depository, Amazon, Waterstones, Foyles and all leading online booksellers.

AEJ member Charles Jenkins, former Western Europe editor of the Economist Intelligence Unit, blogs on Europe at https://eupriorities.ideasoneurope.eu/

Firdevs Robinson’s writing is now accessible on FirdevsTalkTurkey.com

William Horsley blogs on the Centre for Freedom of the Media website.

Long-time AEJ member – and journalist, author and politician – Jonathan Fryer is the Liberal Democrat Brexit spokesman for London. Please see his blog here.
 

 

News

Belarus standoff
The Association of European Journalists has called for the release of Belarusian journalist Andrei Aliaksandrau and eight others held in jail in connection with their reporting of public protests against the government. Aliaksandrau, detained since January 12, is a long-time associate of the AEJ, was a deputy chairman of the Belarusian Association of Journalists from 2009 to 2012, and is the founder and chief editor of the news website Belarus Journal. Last November the Belarus Association of Journalists was awarded the prestigious Media Freedom Award from the Global Media Freedom Coalition, now made up of over 40 countries, that was established in 2019 by the UK and Canada. The award citation recognised the BAJ for its commitment to covering human rights and election fraud in the face of violence and threats. The AEJ previously called for a strong, concerted international response against violent suppression of free media in Belarus, saying on September 3 that the Belarusian authorities’ violent suppression of free media, targeted attacks against journalists, and the denial of accreditations and deportations of large numbers of journalists were aimed at preventing journalists from reporting on legitimate protests against alleged election fraud and other government abuses.

Hundreds of journalists have been arrested in Belarus in a harsh crackdown by the government of President Alexander Lukashenko on mass protests that have continued weekly for five months against August elections widely considered as rigged. The European Union has not recognised the legality of the elections, saying they were “not free and fair” and an investigation supported by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe found massive and systemic violations of basic rights before and after the poll. On January 18 the International Ice Hockey Federation stripped Belarus of its right to co-host this year’s world championships, a slap to avid hockey fan Lukashenko. For some time Lukashenko has been stuck in an ongoing power standoff with opposition protesters. His state media said on December 31 he will hold a referendum on his suggested constitutional reforms and has called a congress of his supporters in February. At the same time reports surfaced that neighbouring Russia plans to launch a pro-Russia party in the Belarus borderland between it and the EU. Russia has kept a low profile amid much reporting about its plans – ranging from speculation about losing patience with Lukashenko through opposition hopes for support from new U.S. President Joe Biden, along with earlier analysis of Vladimir Putin’s options from the Washington-based Council on Foreign Relations, the Washington Post-owned Foreign Policy, and even from inside Russia in the Moscow-based English language Moscow Times.

Please see more on Belarus.

 

Silicon Valley and “media freedom”
Honorary AEJ member and veteran American journalist and columnist Llewellyn King raises some serious questions about the power of digital media giants and free speech in the wake of actions to shut down U.S. President Donald Trump’s accounts on Twitter and Facebook. What if these companies get politically activated in the future, he asks, while acknowledging that President Trump deserves censure and the digital companies’ actions may not be wrong at a time of crisis. Quoting journalist and essayist H.L. Mencken in 1940 - “freedom of the press is limited to those who own one” - King says the current exercise of censor authority should alarm all free-speech advocates and is power that exceeds anything ever seen in media. For more on his call for a re-examination of current law and a larger discussion on all the issues of free speech on social media please see his column on the White House Chronicle and InsideSources.

Journalism in the age of Covid
There has been concern for most of the last year about growing pressures on journalists and politicians of all stripes using the coronavirus pandemic as an excuse to control reporting and suppress information. For an update on this – reported here on the AEJ UK website earlier this year – please see this update and round up from Brussels Morning.

Quicker justice for journalists
The AEJ has formally endorsed an authoritative legal report calling for an international task force to ensure effective investigations into violent attacks and abuses against journalists. The report by 15 leading international lawyers calls for creation of a new International Investigative Task Force to ensure effective investigations into violent attacks and abuses against journalists. It was launched on November 25 by the independent High Level Legal Panel supporting the Global Media Freedom Coalition made up of some 40 UN member states. The task force of forensic and legal experts is intended to act with strong political backing with a mandate to strengthen existing UN mechanisms to bring to justice perpetrators of acts such as the assassination of Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia in a car bomb attack in 2017, and the murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul in 2018.

How journalists handle political pressure and threats
AEJ UK chairman William Horsley has addressed the Council of Europe committee on media and information society about the extraordinary experiences, persecution and courageous work of 20 frontline journalists across Europe detailed in a new book he has co-authored. Along with co-author Marilyn Clark, associate professor of psychology at the University of Malta, the writers hope to provide a new rationale and impetus for protecting journalists more effectively from physical and legal attacks, exclusion and online harassment, and the impact of climates of impunity when journalists are attacked or murdered. The book “A Mission to Inform: Journalists at risk speak out” was launched on October 14 coinciding with the third anniversary of the death of Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia. It includes the last interview she gave, available here – only 10 days before she was killed while reporting on corruption issues. On the anniversary of her death on October 16 2017, the AEJ added its voice to 19 other organisations supporting journalists, international free expression, anti-corruption, and civic participation in demanding an end to impunity from prosecution for the attack.
The new book is based on “in-depth interviews with 20 journalists from 18 different countries selected for their experience and skill in reporting in the public interest and exposing injustice and abuses. Each … shared their insights into the realities of doing cutting-edge journalism to bring the truth to light; they spoke about their first-hand experience of threats, hostility and intimidation, surveillance and cyberattacks, and about self-censorship, resilience and coping strategies, as well as about what they portray as routine failures by state authorities to give journalists the protection they need to fulfil their public watchdog role.” It is published by the Council of Europe and the foreword by the COE’s Director General of Human Rights and Rule of Law notes that journalists across member states face various forms of pressure and intimidation meant to silence and hinder their ‘mission to inform’ - “worrying given that democratic societies can only function if media actors can report on matters of public interest without interference and without fear”.  The COE notes that the book is a follow up to a study in 2017 involving nearly 1000 questionnaires answered by journalists which revealed grave statistics concerning the risks they faced. “A Mission to Inform: Journalists at risk speak out” is aimed at analysing how journalists responded to pressures exerted on them and what solutions they found to overcome fear and continue being able to fulfil their public watchdog mission.

Peace in Nagorno-Karabakh?

Six weeks of fighting between Azerbaijan and Armenia have ended in the bitterly disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh with a peace agreement brokered by Russia. Russian peacekeepers arrived at the end of November as thousands of Armenian refugees left and there is some scepticism about how long peace will last.

Fighting flared at the end of September after months of rising tension over the disputed territory, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan but governed by ethnic Armenians who claim a separate state. The Association of European Journalists joined 10 other international media organizations on the Council of Europe Journalists’ Platform to raise concern for the safety of journalists in the conflict. It was the second warning issued by the AEJ. On October 2 the AEJ condemned all acts of violence targeting journalists and other media workers in the renewed armed conflict. The statements reinforced a call from the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights to protect human rights and ensure accurate and comprehensive reporting in such a volatile conflict. The AEJ statement is available here and coverage of the dispute is available at Hetq Online, published by the Armenian Association of Investigative Journalists NGO. For more please see here.

AEJ joins call for the U.S. government to drop plan for shorter journalists visas
The AEJ has joined 24 global media organisations to support a European Broadcasting Union (EBU) appeal to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to not shorten the length of visas for foreign journalists. The joint statement says the proposed changes would put media freedom at risk and jeopardise the work of foreign media to provide accurate, unbiased news reporting for global audiences from the USA. U.S. Homeland Security has proposed shorter visas - 240 days, with a possible extension of a maximum of another 240 days. Currently many foreign news organizations appoint correspondents for a number of years (commonly 2-5 years), allowing time for individual journalists to better understand the country and therefore better report on it to the rest of the world.

 

Freedom of expression under growing threat in Turkey

The AEJ joined 10 other international media freedom, journalism and human rights groups to warn of a growing crisis for freedom of expression in Turkey. The group coalition said the situation is getting worse amid growing state capture of media, the lack of independence of regulatory institutions, and a new social media law designed to clamp down on the remaining spaces for free comment. The coalition highlighted the continued jailing and prosecution of journalists as well as ongoing concerns over the safety of journalists and judicial independence. The warning came after a four-day mission to Turkey in early October for hybrid online/offline meetings in Istanbul and Ankara with journalists, civil society, members of parliament, the judiciary and other authorities to assess the newest threats to independent journalism, which in 2020 included detentions and criminal investigations of journalists who reported on the country’s management of the Covid-19 pandemic. It was led by the International Press Institute(IPI) and included representatives from ARTICLE 19, the Association of European Journalists (AEJ), the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), the European Centre for Press and Media Freedom (ECPMF), the European Federation of Journalists (EFJ), Human Rights Watch (HRW), Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso Transeuropa (OBC Transeuropa), PEN International, Reporters without Borders (RSF) and the South East Europe Media Organisation (SEEMO). Please find the whole statement here.

 

Growing dangers to media freedom in Bulgaria

The AEJ Bulgaria is highly critical of growing dangers to media freedom in Bulgaria in its annual media freedom survey. It highlights dangerous trends arising from external pressures on free and independent media from political and business forces, national and local government, and advertisers. And it says stagnation is a fitting description for the current state of the media environment in Bulgaria in 2020 - a snapshot from the replies of the respondents is almost identical to that in 2015. Nearly one out of two Bulgarian journalists described the situation in the media industry as “poor” or “very poor”, with a mere 3% of respondents describing it as “excellent”. Please see the full report Journalism Without Masks, 2020 Annual Survey Of Media in Bulgaria here on the AEJ Bulgaria website.

AEJ journalist wins Pulitzer Prize
Bulgarian journalist Boryana Dzambazova, a member of the AEJ Bulgaria management board, has won a 2020 Pulitzer Prize in International Reporting for a New York Times investigation into actions of the Russian secret services. Please see here for more.

AEJ actions on media freedom
The AEJ has played an active part with other media freedom organisations throughout 2020 to highlight attempts by some European states to use the covid pandemic as a pretext to suppress independent media voices. And in a number of cases forced governments to reverse their actions or take account of public criticism of attempts to constrain media freedom. A report on these actions is available here from William Horsley, AEJ media freedom representative and UK chairman.

 

Continuing struggles for media freedom worldwide
The struggle to maintain and preserve media freedom continues around the world.
In Hungary the AEJ is among 16 groups which have urged the EU Competition Commissioner Margrethe Vestager to take action in response to complaints that the Hungarian government has violated EU state aid rules on abuse of state advertising and aid to public broadcaster to undermine media pluralism. Earlier it raised an alarm against the destruction of Hungary’s independent Index news portal. It has expressed support for Szabolcs Dull who was dismissed as editor in chief and for all the Index journalists who resigned, accusing the government of political interference. The sudden sacking came after allies of prime minister Viktor Orban took a controlling interest in the ownership of the online Index news website, Hungary’s leading source of independent news and political comment.

In Bulgaria the AEJ has condemned unprovoked violence against a reporter for Radio Free Europe by security guards and delegates at a national conference of the ruling party.
 And in The Philippines, Reporters Without Borders (RSF) and other NGOs have opened a petition calling for the Philippine government to drop all charges and cases against Maria Ressa, the award-winning journalist and editor of Rappler, and to end pressure on independent media in the Philippines. Maria Ressa was awarded the UNESCO World Press Freedom Prize for her courageous work and journalistic leadership. President Duterte has declared that journalists are “not exempt from assassination” and his government has sought to close down leading independent media and imprison respected journalists, including Ressa, who with her colleague Reynaldo Santos Jr was convicted on “cyber libel” charges.

 

Fake news updates
Two key characters in the ongoing fake news saga of the last few years now face forms of justice. In the UK, Alexander Nix the former head of Cambridge Analytica has been banned from running any limited liability company for seven years. And in the USA, right-wing promoter and former Trump chief strategist Steve Bannon has been charged with fraud. The Cambridge Analytica story first looked like a plotline straight out of the U.S. TV series Homeland – allegations of an illegal data grab used to manipulate national votes in both the U.S. presidential election and the UK referendum on leaving the European Union. But it was life once again imitating art – sparked by an investigative report published in mid-March 2018 by The Observer newspaper and shared with the UK’s Channel 4 television and the New York Times. For more please see here.

 

Justice for Daphne?

It was 1000 days since the assassination of Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia. And justice was yet to be served as more disturbing revelations of state corruption and impunity underscored the weaknesses in Malta’s rule of law, and the entrenched impunity for both the murder of Caruana Galizia and the high-level abuses of power she investigated. Marking this shocking landmark the AEJ joined 12 other media freedom organisations on July 12 in again calling for justice. For more please see
https://www.aej.org/page.asp?p_id=737.
Malta has a new prime minister and the country’s police chief has resigned in the ongoing scandal but there remained many questions. Aljazeera has this report and AEJ UK member and former BBC journalist Firdevs Robinson has this look at breaks in the story. On Nov. 20 2019 one of the country’s richest men, gambling and property entrepreneur Yorgen Fenech, was arrested and in court two weeks later accused of being the brains behind the killing. He’s denied the charges and blamed allies of the prime minister. Two of them resigned and in the face of major street protests Prime Minister Joseph Muscat said he would resign. His government spent two years stonewalling any genuine investigation and far longer rejecting accusations of widespread money laundering, political corruption and cronyism.

Media Freedom in the Commonwealth?
It’s never been so bad, ” says the publisher of Africa Today. Nigerian journalist Kayode Soyinka thus summed up the wide consensus that emerged from a media freedom panel discussion during the Taking Stock of the Commonwealth day-long global webinar on 24 June. The event was organised by the Institute of Commonwealth Studies as a “virtual tour of the Commonwealth and its challenges” and took place on the exact date when the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) had been due to open in Rwanda. The biennial summit was postponed because of the Covid-19 pandemic. For more please see this report from AEJ UK chairman and international media freedom representative William Horsley.

Attacks on media risk a New Normal
The 2020 annual media freedom report warns that attacks on press freedom in Europe risk creating a new normal as the Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated a growing pattern of intimidation to silence journalists on the continent. These attacks underscore the report’s urgent wake-up call for Council of Europe member states to act quickly and resolutely to end the assault against press freedom, so that journalists and other media actors can report without fear. The 14 international media freedom groups and journalists’ organisations –the AEJ, Article 19, Committee to Protect Journalists, EBU, EFJ/IFJ, European Centre for Press and Media Freedom, Free Press Unlimited, Index on Censorship, INSI, IPI, PEN International, Reporters Without Borders, Rory Peck Trust – warn of a growing pattern of intimidation to silence journalists on the continent through attacks, intimidation, media ‘capture’ and sweeping emergency laws that are open to abuse and severely restrict the media’s ability to hold state power to account.

 

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About the AEJ
The AEJ is an independent network of journalists, writers and specialists active across Europe, a 
Europe wide network of national sections with the goal of advancing knowledge and debate on European affairs and upholding media freedom. In the UK we host regular meetings for journalists providing a forum for open-minded exchanges with public figures of all backgrounds to promote informed debate on European and international affairs. Our lunchtime meetings are open to bona fide journalists and visiting members of other AEJ sections; an entry fee must be paid to cover the costs of food and drink and pre-registration is essential. Journalists, writers and specialists in European affairs may also apply to join the Association of European Journalists – please see here for more about the benefits of membership or contact the AEJ UK Secretary.
You can also follow us on our AEJ UK
Facebook Page.
We are independent of any institutional or political group and are recognised by the Council of Europe, the OSCE and UNESCO.

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